ASTM D422 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils, thí nghiệm thành phần hạt

ASTM D422 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils

ASTM D422 Phương pháp thí nghiệm thành phần hạt

 

  1. Scope

1.1 This test method covers the quantitative determination of the distribution of particle sizes in soils. The distribution of particle sizes larger than 75 µm (retained on the No. 200 sieve) is determined by sieving,   while the distribution of particle sizes smaller than 75 µm is determined by a sedimentation process, using a hydrometer to secure the necessary data (Note 1 and Note 2)
ASTM D422 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
ASTM D422 Phương pháp thí nghiệm thành phần hạt

  1. Referenced Documents

2.1 ASTM Standards:

D 421 Practice for Dry Preparation of Soil Samples for Particle-Size Analysis and Determination of Soil Constants2

E 11 Specification for Wire-Cloth Sieves for Testing Purposes3

E 100 Specification for ASTM Hydrometers

 

  1. Apparatus

3.1 Balances—A balance sensitive to 0.01 g for weighing the material passing a No. 10 (2.00-mm) sieve, and a balance sensitive to 0.1 % of the mass of the sample to be weighed for weighing the material retained on a No. 10 sieve.

3.2 Stirring Apparatus—Either apparatus A or B may be used.

3.2.1 Apparatus A shall consist of a mechanically operated stirring device in which a suitably mounted electric motor turns a vertical shaft at a speed of not less than 10 000 rpm without load. The shaft shall be equipped with a replaceable stirring paddle made of metal, plastic, or hard rubber, as shown in Fig.1. The shaft shall be of such length that the stirring paddle will operate not less than 3⁄4 in. (19.0 mm) nor more than 11⁄2 in. (38.1 mm) above the bottom of the dispersion cup. A special dispersion cup conforming to either of the  designs shown in Fig. 2 shall be provided to hold the sample while it is being dispersed.

3.2.2 Apparatus B shall consist of an air-jet dispersion cup5 (Note 3) conforming to the general details shown in Fig. 3 (Note 4 and Note 5).

3.3 Hydrometer

3.4 Sedimentation Cylinder

3.5 Thermometer

3.6 Sieves—A series of sieves, of square-mesh woven-wire cloth, conforming to the requirements of Specification E 11. A full set of sieves includes the following (Note 6):

3-in. (75-mm)                  No. 10 (2.00-mm)

2-in. (50-mm)                  No. 20 (850-µm)

11⁄2-in. (37.5-mm)          No. 40 (425-µm)

1-in. (25.0-mm)               No. 60 (250-µm)

3⁄4-in. (19.0-mm)            No. 140 (106-µm)

3⁄8-in. (9.5-mm)            No. 200 (75-µm)

No. 4 (4.75-mm)

 

3.7 Water Bath or Constant-Temperature Room

3.8 Beaker—A beaker of 250-mL capacity.

3.9 Timing Device—A watch or clock with a second hand

ASTM D422 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
ASTM D422 Phương pháp thí nghiệm thành phần hạt

  1. Report

18.1 The report shall include the following:

18.1.1 Maximum size of particles,

18.1.2 Percentage passing (or retained on) each sieve, which may be tabulated or presented by plotting on a graph (Note 16),

18.1.3 Description of sand and gravel particles:

18.1.3.1 Shape—rounded or angular,

18.1.3.2 Hardness—hard and durable, soft, or weathered and friable,

18.1.4 Specific gravity, if unusually high or low,

18.1.5 Any difficulty in dispersing the fraction passing the No. 10 (2.00-mm) sieve, indicating any change in type and aount of dispersing agent, and

18.1.6 The dispersion device used and the length of the dispersion period.

ASTM D422 Standard Test Method for Particle-Size Analysis of Soils
ASTM D422 Phương pháp thí nghiệm thành phần hạt

  1. Keywords

grain-size; hydrometer analysis; hygroscopic moisture;

particle-size; sieve analysis

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